WAC Inter-Congress in Auckland, New Zealand PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 11 November 2005 00:00

Second Indigenous Inter-Congress November 8 - 12, 2005

Waipapa Marae, University of Auckland, Auckland, Aotearoa/New Zealand

 

The uses and abuses of archaeology for Indigenous peoples

Nau mai haere mai ki nga huihuinga tangata o te ao.

(Welcome to this gathering of the people of the world!)

This interconference provides a forum for examining a range of issues concerned with indigenous peoples and their past. WAC is based on, and campaigns for, the need to recognize the historical and social role and the political context of archaeological inquiry and the need to make archaeological studies relevant to the wider community. WAC's First Code of Ethics acknowledges the obligations of professionals in archaeology and heritage management to indigenous peoples. This involves the recognition of the importance of indigenous cultural heritage (sites, places, objects, artifacts, human remains etc) to indigenous people and also, that this heritage rightfully belongs to them as their cultural property.

contact: dkahotea@ihug.co.nz, phillips@orcon.net.nz or jwatkins@telepath.com

INTERNATIONAL CALL FOR ABSTRACTS

The Uses and Abuses of Archaeology for Indigenous Peoples

World Archaeology Congress
Second Indigenous Inter-Congress
Waipapa Marae, University of Auckland, Tamaki-Makau-Rau/Auckland, Aotearoa/New Zealand
November 8 - 12, 2005
http://ehlt.flinders.edu.au/wac/

Conference Convenors: Des Kahotea (dkahotea@ihug.co.nz), Joe Watkins (jwatkins@telepath.com), and Caroline Phillips (phillips@orcon.net.nz) Program Chair : Stephanie Ford (stephanie_ford_wac@hotmail.com)

The World Archaeological Congress has long constituted itself as an organization of worldwide archaeology that recognizes the historical and social role of archaeology as well as its political context and the need to make archaeological studies relevant to the wider community. A forerunner in the debate against institutionalized views that serve the interests of a privileged few to the detriment of disenfranchised others, the WAC values diversity against institutionalized mechanism that marginalize the cultural heritage of indigenous people, minorities and the poor.

WAC focuses on the importance of the historical and social role and the political context of archaeological inquiry, and seeks to make studies in archaeology significant to the wider community of individuals, groups, and nations. In keeping with these aims, WAC presents this Indigenous Inter-Congress as a means of providing a forum for examining a range of issues concerned with Indigenous peoples and their pasts. WAC's First Code of Ethics acknowledges the obligations of professionals in archaeology and heritage management to indigenous peoples. This involves the recognition of the importance of indigenous cultural heritage (sites, places, objects, artifacts, human remains, etc.) to Indigenous people and also, that this heritage rightfully belongs to them as their cultural property.

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS

The World Archaeology Congress issues a global call for abstracts from which to select speakers at the Inter-Congress, The Uses and Abuses of Archaeology for Indigenous peoples. Sessions include:

 Who is Indigenous?

Sven Ouzman, South Africa, ouzman@uclink.berkeley.edu ; Joram Useb, Namibia, wimsareg@iafrica.com.na ; Joe Watkins, USA, jwatkins@telepath.com

Indigenous Paths to Archaeology

George Nicholas, Canada, nicholas@sfu.ca; Sonya Atalay, USA, sonya_atalay@yahoo.com

The Representation Of Indigenous Peoples In Archaeological Theory 

Alejandro Haber, Argentina, afhaber@arnet.com.ar; Gabriel De La Luz Rodríguez, Puerto Rico, gabrieldelaluz@adelphia.net

Museums: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly

Dorothy Lippert, USA, Lippert.Dorothy@nmnh.si.edu

Protecting Indigenous Cultural and Intellectual Property

Ken Isaacson, Australia, kisaacson@southerngulfcatchments.com.au; Julie Hollowell, USA, jjh@indiana.edu; George Nicholas, Canada, nicholas@sfu.ca

Repatriation: Issues for Communities

Naomi Anderson, Australia, naomi.anderson@unisa.edu.au; Chris Wilson, Australia, christopher.wilson@flinders.edu.au

Resolving The Conflicts Between Archaeological And Indigenous Significance In Heritage Assessments

Desiree Martinez, USA, drmartin@fas.harvard.edu; David Johnston, Australia, davej@iimetro.com.au ; Sven Haakinson, USA, sven@alutiiqmuseum.com

Parallel Perspectives

Carol Ellick, USA, cjellick@srifoundation.org

The NAGPRA: Triumphs, Trials, and Tribulations Voices from Indian Country

Diane Lorraine Teeman, USA, dteeman@darkwing.uoregon.edu

Relationships between archaeologists, teaching institutions, heritage organisations, and Māori

Panel chaired by Peter Adds

Contemporary Issues in Indigenous Archaeology

Paper session chaired by Stephanie Ford, stephanie_ford_wac@hotmail.com

International Repatriation: building relationships and empowering communities

Panel chaired by Lyndon Ormond Parker ormond_parker@hotmail.com and Cressida Fforde cressidaff@compuserve.com 

PROCEDURES

Abstracts of 150 words will be accepted up to September 1, 2005. Please email your abstract to the Program Chair, Stephanie Ford: ( stephanie_ford_wac@hotmail.com). If you have identified a session that you would like to present in, you should email your abstract directly to the session conveners. You will need to include your contact information (name, institutional affiliation if any, mailing address, phone, fax and email). Authors selected to present their papers will be notified within one month of submission of their abstract.

Session Titles

Who is Indigenous?
Sven Ouzman , South Africa, ouzman@uclink.berkeley.edu ; Joram Useb, Namibia, wimsareg@iafrica.com.na ; Joe Watkins, USA, jwatkins@telepath.com

Indigenous Paths to Archaeology
George Nicholas, Canada, nicholas@sfu.ca ; Sonya Atalay, USA, sonya_atalay@yahoo.com

Relationships between archaeologists, teaching institutions, heritage organisations, and Māori
Discussants to be announced

The Representation Of Indigenous Peoples In Archaeological Theory 
Alejandro Haber, Argentina, afhaber@arnet.com.ar; Gabriel De La Luz Rodríguez, Puerto Rico, gabrieldelaluz@adelphia.net

Museums: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly
Dorothy Lippert, USA, Lippert.Dorothy@nmnh.si.edu

Protecting Indigenous Cultural and Intellectual Property
Ken Isaacson, Australia, kisaacson@southerngulfcatchments.com.au; Julie Hollowell, USA, jjh@indiana.edu; George Nicholas, Canada, nicholas@sfu.ca

Repatriation: Issues for Communities
Naomi Anderson, Australia, naomi.anderson@unisa.edu.au; Chris Wilson, Australia, christopher.wilson@flinders.edu.au

Resolving The Conflicts Between Archaeological And Indigenous Significance In Heritage Assessments
Desiree Martinez, USA, drmartin@fas.harvard.edu; David Johnston, Australia, davej@iimetro.com.au; Sven Haakinson, USA, sven@alutiiqmuseum.com

Parallel Perspectives
Carol Ellick, USA, cjellick@srifoundation.org

The NAGPRA: Triumphs, Trials, and Tribulations Voices from Indian Country
Diane Lorraine Teeman, USA, dteeman@darkwing.uoregon.edu

Contemporary Issues in Indigenous Archaeology
Joe Watkins, USA, jwatkins@telepath.com

International Repatriation: building relationships and empowering communities
Lyndon Ormond Parker ormond_parker@hotmail.com and Cressida Fforde cressidaff@compuserve.com

Session Abstracts

Who is Indigenous? (Sven Ouzman, South Africa, ouzman@uclink.berkeley.edu; Joram Useb, Namibia, wimsareg@iafrica.com.na; and Joe Watkins, USA, jwatkins@telepath.com)

What do you name yourself and what do other people call you? 'Indigenous', 'autochthonous', 'native', 'first nation', 'settler', 'colonist', 'immigrant' are names burdened with privileges and penalties. These names are usually 'exonyms' applied from outside rather than 'autonyms' applied from within. Naming and being named - ethnonomy - appears precise but often miscommunication occurs either because these names are incomprehensible or, more dangerously, they seem familiar but mean different things to different people. Isn't it curious how 'Europeans' seldom have to prove their European-ness? We need a common yet flexible definition or set of conditions of `indigeneity' to ensure properly respectful communication.

This communication needs to work at multiple scales. For example, The Ancient One from Kennewick, a person with a very specific history has, by legalistic and definitional sleight-of-hand been made into a 'national' heritage, undermining Native American sovereignty. This assumed right of access is also evident in San rock art, Māori tattoo designs and many other examples. Supporting Indigenous peoples‚ rights is a foundational concern of the World Archaeological Congress and informs WAC's Statutes, First Code of Ethics, Vermillion Accord on Human Remains, and stance on contemporary politics. But WAC-and archaeology generally-has failed to define/understand 'Indigenous' adequately so that such a definition/ understanding does not marginalise Indigenous people or patronise non-Indigenous people. This session aims robustly to discuss this issue.

Indigenous Paths to Archaeology (George Nicholas, Canada, nicholas@sfu.ca ; Sonya Atalay, USA, sonya_atalay@yahoo.com )

Worldwide, the face of archaeology has literally changed as members of the non-Western groups once the subjects of anthropological inquiry are now involved in studying not only their own past but that of other peoples. In recent decades, archaeology has broadened its scope and opened its doors as a response to both internal discourse and external critiques-especially those coming from descendant communities. As a result, the discipline has become more responsible to and more representative of the many stakeholders who have an interest in the past.

One of the most significant changes in archaeology stems from the gradual increase in the number of Indigenous peoples participating in it. In the United States, Canada, Australia, and elsewhere, the involvement of Indigenous peoples with archaeology has been shifting from guiding and working for archaeologists to employing archaeologists in the pursuit of land claims and now to directing and conducting their own archaeological projects. Today, there are not only Aboriginal people working full- or part-time for archaeologists, but also Aboriginal people who are themselves doing and teaching archaeology as a profession, or who have made a choice to enter academia to pursue this career.

This session explores the process of being and becoming Indigenous archaeologists as told by Indigenous scholars-from North and South America, Australia, New Zealand and Africa-who are now university professors, CRM-practioners, community archaeologists, and graduate students.

 Relationships between archaeologists, teaching institutions, heritage organisations, and Māori Discussants to be announced

A central challenge of New Zealand archaeology is that of mediating between the interests of Māori who culture and ancestral heritage is the subject of study and, often, destruction, on one hand, and archaeologists, on the other. This panel takes up the challenge of investigating these relationships.

What is the state of relationships between Māori and archaeologists? What efforts are being made to develop or enhance these relationships? Are such relationships really necessary? This panel brings a range of perspectives to this discussion, calling on speakers from Māori communities, teaching institutions, heritage organizations and the statutory bodies responsible for Indigenous heritage in New Zealand.

The Representation Of Indigenous Peoples In Archaeological Theory (Alejandro Haber, Argentina, afhaber@arnet.com.ar; Gabriel De La Luz Rodríguez, Puerto Rico, gabrieldelaluz@adelphia.net)

While the politics of representation has been a guiding thread in most recent ethnographic and ethnological analysis, that is, the question of what is at stake and what possible power dynamics impress upon our writing about 'others', archaeology as a discipline has reflected very little about the same phenomenon. This symposium will hopefully provide a space to ponder the issue of representation in the production of archaeological theory and practice. Some of the questions that will be addressed include: how are indigenous peoples represented, if they are at all, by the diverse theories that have been used by archaeologists to account for their pasts? What are some of the social and political consequences that might stem from a mix of complex and competing archaeological theories when it comes down to the representation of indigenous cultures to the wider public? Furthermore, how do these theories imply or shape indigenous people's sense of themselves? In order to tackle some of these problems, both theoretical papers as well as specific case studies are welcome.

Museums: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly (Dorothy Lippert, USA, Lippert.Dorothy@nmnh.si.edu)

The concept of a museum as a repository for human remains or exhibit space for cultural material is in many ways, outside the sphere of Indigenous tradition. For many Indigenous populations, material of these types cannot be divorced from its human context and the idea of sequestering the material in a location foreign to its caretakers is contrary to morals and ethics. The course of history has not always taken Indigenous values into account, however, and museums worldwide continue to maintain collections of human remains and sacred cultural objects. Indigenous populations have begun to engage museums in a dialogue designed to impart moral and ethical knowledge to what are generally non-Indigenous institutions. This has frequently resulted in the return of human remains and cultural objects, but there are notable exceptions. This session will explore ways in which Indigenous groups have worked successfully with museums, ways in which the dialogue has broken down and barriers to this process that are rooted firmly in the perceived nature of a museum.

Protecting Indigenous Cultural and Intellectual Property (Ken Isaacson, Australia, kisaacson@southerngulfcatchments.com.au ; Julie Hollowell, USA jjh@indiana.edu ; and George Nicholas, Canada, nicholas@sfu.ca )

Today, issues of ownership of, and access to, cultural and intellectual property lie at the forefront of archaeology and other disciplines that deal with Indigenous forms of cultural expression and knowledge. Worldwide, archaeology has met growing involvement on the part of Indigenous peoples, other descendant communities, for-profit companies, and host governments in everything from permitting excavations to claims exerted over artifacts and research data. At the same time, descendant communities have voiced legitimate concerns about the procurement, dissemination and exploitation of cultural and intellectual property.

As commodifications of cultural pasts and claims over uses of the past continue to expand, questions about sharing the benefits of research and concerns about unauthorized or commercial uses of knowledge, images, stories, and designs will persist and fuel debate, or even legal action. The inability of current forms of intellectual and cultural property law to protect collective or perpetual interests in Indigenous forms of cultural expression is well known. While some efforts are underway to draft new forms of national and international guidelines for protection of Indigenous cultural and intellectual property, Indigenous communities, artists, organizations and tradition bearers have become ever more vocal about pursuing their own remedies by whatever means are available. Instead of waiting for new laws to emerge, they are making use of available legal mechanisms; developing their own policies, protocols, and negotiated agreements; building alternative trade and research networks; and taking other creative approaches to strengthen protection for cultural and intellectual heritage. Issues of cultural and intellectual property rights are also entwined with ongoing struggles for sovereignty, self-determination, subsistence rights, and social and economic equality and cultural integrity shared by Indigenous peoples all over the world.

Contending with intellectual and cultural property concerns in archaeology will require crafting new terms of engagement and compromise that protect and respect Indigenous knowledge and the archaeological record alike and promote more equitable sharing of benefits and knowledge produced by research. This session will draw from the practical experiences of communities and researchers who have contended with these issues. We seek examples of case studies, protocols, and research relationships that show how Indigenous communities and archaeologists can work together to protect Indigenous cultural and intellectual property rights. Other questions this session might address include: What are the major concerns when it comes to protecting Indigenous cultural and intellectual properties and what forms of customary or legal protection apply? What are the key elements of successful, equitable resolu­tions to intellectual and cultural property concerns, and how can translate these into policy, protocols, and mutually beneficial research relationships.

 Repatriation: Issues for Communities (Naomi Anderson, Australia, naomi.anderson@unisa.edu.au; Chris Wilson, Australia, christopher.wilson@flinders.edu.au)

This session aims to provide a forum for Indigenous perspectives on issues faced by Indigenous communities around the globe, in dealing with the repatriation of Indigenous ancestral remains and associated material.

This session will open an area for discussing the social, cultural and political effects of repatriation within Indigenous communities. It will consider the issues that repatriation generates within a community context and explore Indigenous cultural concerns relevant to communities when dealing with Indigenous ancestral remains. It will also explore steps taken by Indigenous groups seeking to form collaborative and joint partnerships with institutions such as museums recognizing Indigenous rights to care their ancestors in an attempt to pursue ownership of the past and control of their future.

Resolving The Conflicts Between Archaeological And Indigenous Significance In Heritage Assessments (Desiree Martinez, USA, drmartin@fas.harvard.edu ; David Johnston, Australia, davej@iimetro.com.au ; and Sven Haakinson, USA, sven@alutiiqmuseum.com )

Much recent archaeological literature has highlighted a growing concern with the fracture between current cultural heritage management practice and the concerns of Indigenous people. This includes the undue emphasis placed on sites as the dominant units of cultural heritage management and the inflexibility of this approach in the face of the more abstract knowledge systems belonging to Indigenous peoples.

This session will consider how Indigenous and Western approaches to establishing significance have informed current debates in archaeological heritage assessment. Different approaches can generate conflict, which can be interpreted in terms of a clash of worldviews, particularly in terms of capitalist and Indigenous approaches to the construction of knowledge, time and space. This session will key into an emerging debate amongst archaeologists and cultural heritage managers about the most appropriate ways to identify and manage the living heritage of Indigenous peoples, their land and seascapes.

Parallel Perspectives

Carol Ellick (USA, cjellick@srifoundation.org)

There is more than one story of the past. Archaeology presents a scientific story of human existence, one that is based on hypotheses, data, and interpretation. Cultures have traditional stories that interpret and maintain the past through oral histories, stories, and traditions.

Parallel Perspectives is an educational program that encourages children to "listen" to stories from the scientific and traditional perspectives. Students initiate their own research, and create a personal interpretation through the process of comparing and contrasting what they've learned. There is no "right" or "wrong" answer, simply an enlightening process that helps students build a personal framework for the past.

This session will highlight Parallel Perspectives and outreach and educational programs that focus on teaching indigenous and non-indigenous children cultural history through the incorporation of archaeology and traditional stories.

The NAGPRA: Triumphs, Trials, and Tribulations Voices from Indian Country

Diane Lorraine Teeman, USA, dteeman@darkwing.uoregon.edu

Many tribal communities have been impacted by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act since its inception in 1990. Originally heralded as unprecedented human rights legislation moving our U.S. society towards greater racial equality, the NAGPRA has had mixed results. Federally recognized and unrecognized indigenous North American cultures continue negotiating the return of their ancestors' remains. In some instances, the NAGPRA has facilitated the return of human remains and other items to tribal groups. Conversely, the NAGPRA has also served as an impediment to the repatriation of human remains and other items for "unrecognized" tribal groups and tribal groups determined to have "no scientifically identifiable cultural affiliation." Fourteen years after the NAGPRA's inception, many questions are unresolved. The future of the NAGPRA and other proposed legislative acts for protection of indigenous human remains is yet to be determined. This symposium endeavors to provide a forum which projects tribal communities' perspectives on the successes and failures of the NAGPRA legislation. At the heart of this symposium is the desire to facilitate productive dialogue between indigenous North Americans and anthropologists, with an emphasis on the presentation and discussion of indigenous epistemologies as they interact with western ideological systems.

Contemporary Issues in Indigenous Archaeology

Joe Watkins, USA, jwatkins@telepath.com

This session will provide the opportunity to present papers on a broad range of issues concerning the uses and abuses of archaeology for indigenous populations.

International Repatriation: building relationships and empowering communities

Lyndon Ormond Parker ormond_parker@hotmail.com and Cressida Fforde cressidaff@compuserve.com

This session will look at various aspects of international repatriation, with focus on policy and legislation, and on the practical processes, challenges and outcomes that are presented. Over the past 15 years, indigenous human remains have begun to be repatriated across international borders, particularly from Europe. There is a growing knowledge base of skills and experience by all represented in the process, and this session will provide a forum for discussion about what can be learned from the past and developed in the future.

Programme

Tuesday 8 November

8.30

Assemble at marae

9.00-10.00

Powhiri - welcome to visitors

10.00-10.30

Morning tea and registration

10.30-11.00

Whanaungatanga - Introduction of international guests

11.00-12.00

Official opening by key-note speaker Linda Smith

12.00-1.00

Lunch

1.00-3.00

Session: Who is Indigenous?

3.00-3.30

Afternoon tea

3.30-5.30

Panel: Indigenous Paths to Archaeology

5.30-6.00

Summing up - Identification of Issues

6.00-7.00

Conversation with Peter Ucko

7.00-8.30

Opening Reception

Wednesday 9 November

8.30-10.30

Panel: Relationships between archaeologists, teaching institutions, heritage organisations, and Māori

10.30-11.00

Morning tea and registration

11.00-12.30

Session: The Representation Of Indigenous Peoples In Archaeological Theory 

12.30-1.30

Lunch

1.30-3.00

Session: Museums: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly

3.00-3.30

Afternoon tea

3.30-4.00

Conversation with Jack Golson

4.00-5.30

Session: Contemporary Issues in Indigenous Archaeology

5.30-6.00

Summing up - Identification of Issues

6.00-7.00

Book Launch or Poster Display

7.00-8.30

Trip to Auckland War Memorial Museum

Thursday 10 November Free Day/Field Trip

Friday 11 November

8.30-10.30

Session: Resolving The Conflicts Between Archaeological And Indigenous Significance In Heritage Assessments

10.30-11.00

Morning tea and registration

11.00-12.30

Session/Panel: Parallel Perspectives

12.30-1.30

Lunch

1.30-3.00

Panel: Repatriation: Issues for Communities (possibly swap with NAGPRA)

3.00-3.30

Afternoon tea

3.30-5.30

Session/ Panel: The NAGPRA: Triumphs, Trials, and Tribulations Voices from Indian Country

5.30-6.00

Summing up Session - Identification of Issues

7.00-late

Conference Dinner

Saturday 12 November

8.30-10.00

Panel: International Repatriation: building relationships and empowering communities

10.00-10.30

Morning tea and registration

10.30-12.00

Session/Panel: Protecting Indigenous Cultural and Intellectual Property

12.00-1.00

Lunch

1.00-2.30

Plenary Session

2.30-3.30

Poroporoaki- Farewell to visitors

Accommodation for WAC Inter-Congress, Auckland, New zealand

  1. Accommodation is available at Waipapa Marae from 7-12 November inclusive, bring a sleeping bag and towel (mattress, pillow, linen is provided). This is communal sleeping on a mattress on the floor, and is usually a very social affair!

The cost is $NZ20/night and breakfast is $NZ10.
At the time of writing there are still 30 places available.
Note that if you arrive before, or leave after these dates you will need to book accommodation elsewhere for that time.
If you wish to stay at the marae please contact Caroline Phillips phillips@orcon.net.nz

For all other bookings please contact Amanda at the University of Auckland Accommodation and Conference Services a.sterling@auckland.ac.nz or 09 3737599 ext 89451. Please state that you are attending WAC and you will get a discount rate.

  1. The Railway Campus , 24-28 Te Taou Crescent, was the old central railway station now converted into student apartments is also available. There are varied types of accommodation, including one bedroom studios, two or three bedroom apartments, and family living.

50 rooms have been set aside for WAC delegates until 24 October, after which there will still be rooms but they are not guaranteed. There are varied rates, all very reasonable, check the web site below:

Click here

Hotels near the conference venue, on the UOA preferred hotel list, and within 5-10 mins walking distance (avoid rush hour traffic), include:

  1. Quest on Mount, 15 Mount Street City: Rate $NZ117.00, Room type-Studio
  2. Copthorne Anzac Ave, 1550 Anzac Ave, City: Rate $NZ120.00, Room type-Premium
  3. Hyatt Hotel, Cnr Mayoral Drive & Princess St, City: Rate $NZ130.00, Room type-View
  4. Langham Hotel, 83 Symonds St, City: Rate $NZ150.00, Room type-Superior

 

WAIPAPA MARAE: PROTOCOLS FOR THE POWHIRI

He kainga no te ururoa, te moanaThe ocean is the home of the shark, and
He kainga no te kereru, te ngaherethe forest is the home of the wood pigeon.

This proverb has many meanings one of which is that respect should be accorded to those whose domain you enter.

Ko Maungakiekie te maungaMaungakiekie is the mountain
Ko Waitemata te moanaWaitemata the sea
Ko Ngäti Whatua te iwiNgäti Whatua the people/tribe (of Auckland)
Ko Waipapa te maraeWaipapa the University Marae
Ko Täne-nui-a-rangi te wharenuiTäne-nui-a-rangi the whare
Ko Reipae te wharekaiReipae the wharekai

 

Powhiri

This handout is a brief guide to the procedure for attending a powhiri at Waipapa Marae. The kawa can vary from place to place but for this marae the following guide will give you some idea of what to expect.

It should be noted that walking on to the marae is a time of remembrance, sadness and showing of respect. The manuhiri often walk forward slowly with their head bowed, some even shed tears for those who have died. So when called on to the marae it is appropriate to be silent and reverent.

1. Assemble outside the gate and organise kaikorero, koha and kaiwhakahokia i te karanga (the person who will return/answer the call from the home people). A koha is a gift to the people you are visiting, usually this is money, placed into an envelope and given to your speakers.

2. Move to the gate - women in the front, men at the back (and sides). It is important that you keep together, normally in an arrow formation with your caller in the front. Usually the elder women of your group will stand at the front. Stay together as a group when moving forward.

3. When the kaikaranga for the tangata whenua gives her call, your ope proceed to walk forward slowly on to the Marae atea. It is polite to be silent during the powhiri. Its important to stay close together as a group when walking on to the marae - so if you have children they should be at your side.

4. The kaiwhakahoki i te karanga for the manuhiri will reply. She/he is at the front (or sometimes to the sides) of the group and everyone stays behind or close by. The group walks slowly forward and stops about halfway between the gate and the wharenui. At this point the group will stop for one to two minutes (at a tangihanga this stop is often much longer).

5. The manuhiri starts walking forward and the kaikaranga for the tangata whenua will begin their second call.

6. The call is answered by the kaiwhakahokia i te karanga for the manuhiri. The group walks on to the porch of the house where they remove their shoes. They enter the house and go to the right side of the house. They then walk along the right hand side wall and remain standing. Seating will be provided for your speakers on the right hand side (all others will be seated behind them on the floor or on mattresses). It is correct to remain standing until everyone is assembled inside and until you are asked to be seated by the tangata whenua.

7. Once seated the speeches begin (prior to this though, a prayer of thanks is often given). As each speech is made, it is followed with a waiata. The manuhiri speakers follow with their speeches and waiata.

8. The koha is (usually) placed on the ground or handed to a representative of the tangata whenua by the last speaker before the final waiata. At the end of the speeches the tangata whenua will indicate to the manuhiri to come forward to shake hands and to hongi.

9. The hongi is incorrectly translated as rubbing noses. The hongi has special significance, including the mixing of the breath and the wairua. Often the hongi is only performed by the kaikorero and kaumatua of your group. The nose and then the forehead are pressed against the other persons nose and forehead once (in other parts of New Zealand it is two presses of the nose and forehead).

10. The formal part of the Powhiri finishes once the person has had something to drink and eat (there are cultural reasons for this). You are now tangata whenua and Waipapa is your marae. You will be called into the wharekai where a karakia is always said before the eating of a meal. It is polite to help in the kitchen. Don't ask those in the kitchen if they need help as they will say no, just help and they will greatly appreciate it. After a cup of tea you will reassemble in the house for further discussion, debate or instruction.

Points to Remember

Speaking

A great deal of respect is accorded to people who are speaking so there are some rules that are important to know.

• There are no restrictions on women to speak within the wharenui but there are appropriate places and times. So always check prior to standing or until someone has indicated.

• It is not polite to speak when others are speaking. No matter how much you disagree with a speaker, you must wait until they have finished talking completely.

• Never walk in front of a speaker. If you really are desperate then walk behind them or bend down if walking in front of them.

Terms

Hongi - Pressing of nose and forehead in greeting [do not close your eyes]
Kaikaranga - the woman/women "caller" (tangata whenua side) who has the honour of calling on the visitors
Kaikorero - The speaker
kaiwhakahoki i te karanga - The woman/man "caller" (manuhiri side) who has the honour of returning the call to the tangata whenua
Karanga - A call
Karakia - A prayer
Kaumatua - Elder(s) [inclusive of both male and female]
Kawa - Protocols, rules
Koha- A gift/donation [a gesture of appreciation]
Manuhiri - Visiting group
Marae - Whole complex, grounds and buildings
Marae atea - Ground directly in front of the wharenui [forecourt of the marae]
Ope - Group
Powhiri - Ceremony of welcome
Tangata whenua - Home people [people of the marae]
Tangihanga - Bereavement/funeral
Waiata - Song
Wairua - Spirit
Wharenui - Meeting house
Wharekai - Dining hall and/or kitchen

 

TOURISM LINKS

Culture

www.maori.org.nz                       Maori Web Link

www.culture.co.nz                       Maori Web Link

www.maoriart.org.nz                   Maori Music and Art

www.tamoko.org.nz                     Maori Tattoo

www.maorinews.com                  Maori News

www.maoritelevision.com           Maori Television

 

Maori Tourism Sites

www.toiiho.com                            Maori Made Mark                                 

www.maoritourism.co.nz             The New Zealand Maori Tourism Council

www.mtt.org.nzMokau                 River Cruises

www.koroniti.com                         Koroniti Marae

www.kiwi360.com                         Kiwi360

www.poutama.co.nz                     Poutama Maori Business Trust

www.indigenousnewzealand.com   Maori Tourism website

www.ngaitahu.iwi.nz/Holdings/Home Ngai Tahus tourism investments

 

NZ General Sites

www.tourism.govt.nz          The Ministry of Tourism

www.destinationnz.co.nz   Destination New Zealand Tourism Travel Planner

www.newzealand.com       New Zealand Tourism

www.nz.com                        New Zealand on the Web

www.trcnz.govt.nz              Tourism Research Council of Of New Zealand

www.newzealand.com        Tourism New Zealand

www.nzhistory.net.nz          New Zealand History

 

Parks

www.arc.govt.nz                 Te Rauhitanga Taiao- Auckland Regional Council

www.doc.govt.nz                 Te Papa Atawhai  Department of Conservation

www.rmaguide.org.nz          Guide to New Zealand Resource Management

 

Universities

www.auckland.ac.nz                                          The University of Auckland

www.arts.auckland.ac.nz/anthro                        Anthropology home page

www.arts.auckland.ac.nz/departments/index   Archaeology homepage

www.waikato.ac.nz                                            Waikato University

www.otago.ac.nz                                                The University of Otago

http://www.canterbury.ac.nz                             The University of Canterbury

www.massey.ac.nz                                               Massey University-

www.lincoln.ac.nz                                               Lincoln University-Christchurch

www.vuw.ac.nz                                                   Victoria University-Wellington

 

Museums

www.aucklandmuseum.com         The Auckland Memorial Museum

www.tepapa.govt.nz                       Museum of New Zealand-Te Papa-Wellington

www.cantmus.govt.nz                   Canterbury Museum-Canterbury

www.nzmaritime.org                      National   Maritime Museum

www.otagomuseum.govt.nz           Otago Museum

 

 

Transport

Conference Venue

Waipapa Marae, The University of Auckland, 16 Wynyard Street, Inner City, Auckland .
You must STRESS Inner City Auckland to the taxi cab airbus or shuttle if ringing from a phone line.

Airbus
Airbus is Auckland's cheapest airport transfer service and calls in at most major hotels and backpackers in Auckland City every 20 minutes, and every 30 minutes after 6pm. 

Look for the Airbus departures stand

All fares must be paid in NZ currency-cash. Tickets are available from the driver - reservations are not required.

City to airport and airport to city transfers take approximately 60 minutes.

Airbus Ticket Prices

One Way  [$NZD]

Return [$NZD]

Adult

$15

$22

Child [5-14 years]

$6

$12

Backpacker [with ID]

$13

$20

Bikes, surfboards etc…

$6

n/a

 

 

 

Call Free:

0508 AIRBUS [within New Zealand]

Fax:

+64 9 375 4732

Email:

stopthebus@airbus.co.nz

Address:

Private Bag 92 637
Symonds Street
Auckland
NewZealand                                                                       

 

Taxi CAB services

You must specify whether or not you wish to pay by credit card, if payment will be made that way. Note that city bound fares are between $30-45 dollars, per cab ride.

Citicabs Call us on 300-1111

Is Auckland's only fully integrated passenger transport system provider. Citicabs offer economy and executive class taxis as well as a shuttle service to and from the airport and all other private and public functions. All our drivers / guides are registered with the Land Transport and Safety Authority and have passed our own rigorous tests. They accept all major credit cards, but have no disability access.

Auckland CO-OP Taxis 300 3000 or Shuttle services 300 3300

Auckland Co-op Taxis was formed in February 1947 and is one of the oldest and largest Taxi Companies in New Zealand. There are 700 vehicles in the fleet and these vehicles operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. The Company is a Co-operative Society, which means the drivers are the owners, so it is in their best interest to provide a quality service. Our drivers MUST hold five area knowledge certificates, Auckland City, North Shore City, Waitakere City, Manukau City and Papakura City. Swipe cards and all major credit cards accepted but no eftpos.

Taxis United 295 1000 most major credit cards accepted

AA Quality Cabs 257 0000 all major credit cards accepted

Corporate Cabs 377 0773 all major credit cards accepted

Discount Taxis 529 1000 some cabs accept major credit cards

Payless Cabs 276 6666 cash only

Kwik Taxi Cabs 298 2000 0800 459 452 all major credit cards accepted

Shuttle Bus Services

Airport Supershuttle Transfers 0800 748885 or 09 306 3960

Super Shuttle is New Zealand's largest airport ground transportation system and provides a personalized, reliable door to door service that is more convenient than a bus and costs much less than a taxi. All our drivers operate late model vehicles with 9 to 11 seats and tow customized trailers to hold all your luggage and other items such as bikes or oversized packages. These vehicles and trailers are all maintained to our company's high specifications. All major credit cards are accepted. Please note that there is no disability access .

Airport Arrowline Shuttles 0800 88 7595

Auckland Airport Express Shuttles 0800 678 900

Direct Shuttles 0800 786 007: visa/master-card only

Auckland Airport Flyer 827 3426

Click on the image below for a larger version or click here for PDF version

Avenues of Registration

Registration and WAC membership can be initiated online.
Alternatively registration can be done via fax: +64 (09) 817 2074 or post to the following address.
Please fill in the following registration form.

ATTENTION: WAC Registration

Dr Caroline Phillips
Co-convenor WAC Indigenous Inter-Congress
Post Box 60-230
Titirangi
Auckland
NEW ZEALAND

Phone +64 (09) 817 2099
Fax +64 (09) 817 2074
phillips@orcon.net.nz

If you have urgent queries or cannot access registration via the internet, please contact the Conference Administrator Ms Margaret Rika-Heke via email muriwhenua@xtra.co.nz

Registration Details

Date sent:

Full Name:

Date of Birth:

Address:

Phone Contact:

Fax Number:

Email Address:

Institute Affiliation:

Registration Type: please circle the appropriate type

Regular ConcessionWAC MemberNon-Wac Member

Extras

Conference Dinner Field-TripMarae Accommodation*

Total:

Form of Payment: please circle the appropriate payment option

CashBank ChequeCredit Card

*Please contact Dr Caroline Phillips to check that there are still places available

Last Updated on Wednesday, 13 May 2009 21:24
 
The World Archaeological Congress is a non-profit organization: WAC 501(c)(3) 52-2294579 074000010 697011369
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